Creating a patio in your garden is one of the most impactful ways to enhance your outdoor space, providing a perfect area for relaxation, dining, and entertainment. The secret to a long-lasting and beautiful patio lies in the preparation. This comprehensive guide will walk you through everything you need to know about preparing for laying a patio, ensuring a successful project from start to finish.

Step 1: Planning Your Patio

Before you start digging into your garden, careful planning is essential. Consider the following:

  • Purpose and Use: Think about how you intend to use your patio. Is it for dining, lounging, or maybe a bit of both? This will influence the size and layout.
  • Location: Ideally, a patio should be situated in a spot that gets ample sunlight or the amount of shade you desire. Also, consider privacy and wind direction.
  • Design and Materials: From traditional flagstones and bricks to contemporary composite decking, your choice of materials will impact the overall look and maintenance required. Research and select the best option that fits your aesthetic and budget.
  • Local Regulations: Check with your local council for any planning permissions or regulations that might affect your project, especially if your home is listed or in a conservation area.

Step 2: Measuring and Marking Out

Once you've decided on the design and location, it's time to measure and mark out the area. Use stakes and string to outline the patio perimeter. This visual guide will help ensure your patio fits the intended space and will also indicate how much material you need to purchase.

Step 3: Preparing the Ground

Proper ground preparation is crucial for preventing your patio from sinking or moving over time.

  1. Clear the Area: Remove any plants, rocks, and debris. If you’re replacing an old patio, this will need to be excavated too.
  2. Excavate: Dig up the soil to the required depth. Typically, this should be around 150mm to allow for a solid foundation – 100mm for sub-base material and 50mm for sand.
  3. Ensure a Slight Slope: To avoid water pooling on your patio, ensure a slight slope away from your house or garden’s focal points. A gradient of 1 in 80 is commonly recommended.

Step 4: Installing the Sub-Base

A sturdy sub-base is essential for longevity. Follow these steps:

  1. Lay a Weed Membrane: This helps prevent weeds from poking through your patio.
  2. Spread the Sub-Base Material: Use MOT Type 1 or a similar crushed stone, evenly spread to a depth of about 100mm. Compact it well using a plate compactor, which you can hire from most tool hire shops.
  3. Check Levels: Use a spirit level to ensure the area is evenly compacted with the correct slope for water drainage.

Step 5: Laying the Sand

The next layer above the sub-base is bedding sand:

  1. Sand Layer: Spread a layer of sharp sand over the sub-base, about 40-50mm thick.
  2. Level the Sand: Use a straight edge and a spirit level to ensure the sand is even and maintains the necessary slope for drainage.
  3. Compacting: Lightly compact the sand, ensuring it remains level.

Step 6: Laying the Patio Stones/Tiles

Starting from one corner and working your way across, begin placing your chosen paving stones onto the sand bed. Use a rubber mallet to tap the stones firmly into place, maintaining consistent gaps between them for jointing. Check the level as you go and adjust the sand bed as needed.

Step 7: Jointing and Finishing Touches

After laying all the stones:

  1. Fill the Joints: Depending on the look and type of pavers used, fill the gaps between them with sand, pointing mortar, or jointing compound.
  2. Sealing (Optional): Some materials may benefit from being sealed to protect against stains and weathering.

Step 8: Enjoy Your New Patio!

Congratulations! You’ve put in the hard work, and now it's time to enjoy your beautiful new garden feature. Add some furniture, planters, and perhaps some garden lights to make the most of your new space.


Preparing and laying a patio in your garden can be a rewarding DIY project that enhances the beauty and functionality of your outdoor living space. By following these meticulous preparation steps and using the right materials, you can create a stunning patio that you'll enjoy for many years to come.